miércoles, 11 de abril de 2012

CONSERVACIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO HISTÓRICO

El patrimonio histórico de un país es una parte de la memoria de la nación y su conservación forma parte de la conservación del patrimonio nacional.

Ciertas manifestaciones del patrimonio histórico pueden ser de tal envergadura que formen parte del patrimonio mundial, o sea, de toda la humanidad. La conservación de este patrimonio también forma parte del cuidado del medio ambiente, ya que es la expresión de las realizaciones humanas, a través de la historia, en un determinado ambiente.
IMPORTANTE:
El Perú, por su larga historia y las numerosas culturas que se sucedieron en su territorio, es muy rico en manifestaciones del patrimonio histórico. Restos arqueológicos, lugares donde se realizaron hechos importantes, documentos, etc., son parte de este patrimonio. La legislación vigente en el país prevé la conservación de este patrimonio a través de las zonas arqueológicas, los santuarios históricos y los monumentos históricos.



1. Las zonas arqueológicas

son áreas declaradas de cuidado especial para proteger los restos arqueológicos. Son declaradas por el sector educación a través del Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC). Existen muchas áreas declaradas para tal fin, pero no cuentan con protección o ésta es muy escasa. Uno de los medios para conservar este patrimonio es educar a la población local sobre su importancia y las normas al respecto. De esta manera los pobladores locales, conscientes de la importancia, apoyarán la conservación de las mismas y podrían obtener beneficios por el turismo.
Entre estos podemos mencionar algunos:


CHAN CHAN











CARAL
Caral


CHAVÍN DE HUANTAR












CAHUACHI











HUACAS DE MOCHE: DEL SOL Y DE LA LUNA











KUELAP












LINEAS DE NASCA














MACHU PICCHU


2. Los santuarios históricos Los Santuarios Históricos son áreas que protegen con carácter de intangible espacios que contienen valores naturales relevantes y constituyen el entorno de sitios de especial significación nacional, por contener muestras del patrimonio monumental y arqueológico o por ser lugares donde se desarrollaron hechos sobresalientes de la historia del país.
  Se han establecido tres de ellos:

S.H. de Chacamarca, en la Pampa de Junín o Meseta de Bombón, el lugar donde se realizó la batalla de Junín. Tiene una superficie de 2 500 ha. Se encuentran un monumento y ruinas incaicas.
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 S. H. Pampas de Ayacucho, en el lugar donde se llevó a cabo la batalla de Ayacucho, que selló la independencia política del país. Tiene 300 ha. Muy cerca se encuentra el pueblo de La Quinua y ruinas de la cultura Wari. En el pueblo se encuentra un museo de sitio y se fabrican hermosas artesanías.


 S. H. Machupicchu, en Cusco, con una superficie de 32 592 ha. Conserva el entorno, el paisaje, la flora y la fauna de la zona donde se encuentra la ciudadela de Machupicchu, famosa en todo el mundo y una de las expresiones más importantes de la arquitectura inca.


Estos santuarios históricos están casi abandonados por la falta de apoyo del Estado y de las autoridades locales. Por ejemplo, el santuario histórico de Machupicchu produce millones de dólares por concepto de turismo, pero muy pocos fondos se invierten en conservar el entorno. Los incendios y la depredación humana están destruyendo los bosques y extinguiendo la biodiversidad, además de poner en peligro la misma ciudadela.



3. Los monumentos históricos

son construcciones declaradas intangibles por su belleza y su valor histórico. No pueden ser alterados ni demolidos. Sin embargo, la falta de control hace que cada año se destruyan monumentos de este tipo.


PLAZA DE ARMAS DE LIMA


MACHU PICCHU

CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE AREQUIPA
callao-san-felipe
CASTILLO DE LA FORTALEZA DEL REAL FELIPE

En el Perú son muy comunes las actividades ¡legales de saqueo de los restos históricos (huaqueo y huaqueros) y la venta ¡legal de los tesoros que se encuentran. Muchos de estos tesoros han terminado en colecciones extranjeras, La cooperación de la población y un control más estricto pueden ayudar a salvar muchos de estos monumentos y objetos. Es imprescindible lograr que las poblaciones locales participen en la responsabilidad de conservarlos y obtengan los beneficios consecuentes

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